The process of cultivating earthworms in order to convert organic waste into fertilizer is called Vermicomposting or Vermiculture. This process is done using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste. It feeds on the debris, manure, rotten plant parts etc and ferments it. The worms feed on the organic waste and produce nutrient-rich manure in the form of excreta. The excreta of earthworms are nutritious and hence the soil becomes fertile. They move throughout the soil and loosen the soil. This will allow air circulation to happen inside the soil and the roots get enough space to grow and extend.
The converted end product or manure is called Vermicompost. This compost will be rich in Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium compared to other composts. Vermicompost contains water-soluble nutrients and is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. It is used in farming and small-scale organic farming.